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1 January 2014 edition
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The present Jumping Rules (hereinafter JRs) are effective on 1 January 2014. Although these JRs set out the detailed rules of the FEI for international Jumping Events, they must be read in conjunction with the FEI Statutes, the FEI General Regulations (GRs), the FEI Veterinary Regulations (VRs), and all other FEI Rules and Regulations. Articles of the other FEI Rules and Regulations that may be cross-referenced in the JRs are as follows
(i) 1 – 99 refer to Articles of the FEI Statutes;
(ii) 100-199 refer to Articles of the FEI GRs;
(iii) 200-299 refer to Articles of these JRs;
(iv) 300-399 refer to Articles of the Rules for Jumping Championships and Games;
(v) 1000-1099 refer to Articles of the FEI VRs.
Every eventuality cannot be provided for in these JRs. In any unforeseen or exceptional circumstances, it is the duty of the appropriate person or body to make a decision in a sporting spirit, by approaching as near as possible the intention of the JRs and of the GRs. Should there remain any omissions in the JRss, such omission shall be interpreted in a manner compatible to the fullest extent with the other provisions of these JRs, other rules and regulations of the FEI, and sporting spirit.
For the sake of brevity these regulations use the masculine form; this is to be interpreted to include both genders. Terms with a capitalized first letter are defined in the Glossary of the JRs, in the GRs or in the Statutes.
THE FEI CODE OF CONDUCT FOR THE WELFARE OF THE HORSE
The FEI requires all those involved in international equestrian sport to adhere to the FEI Code of Conduct and to acknowledge and accept that at all times the welfare of the Horse must be paramount. Welfare of the horse must never be subordinated to competitive or commercial influences. The following points must be particularly adhered to:
1. General Welfare:
a) Good Horse management
Stabling and feeding must be compatible with the best Horse management practices. Clean and good quality hay, feed and water must always be available.
b) Training methods
Horses must only undergo training that matches their physical capabilities and level of maturity for their respective disciplines. They must not be subjected to methods which are abusive or cause fear.
c) Farriery and tack
Foot care and shoeing must be of a high standard. Tack must be designed and fitted to avoid the risk of pain or injury.
During transportation, Horses must be fully protected against injuries and other health risks. Vehicles must be safe, well ventilated, maintained to a high standard, disinfected regularly and driven by competent personnel. Competent handlers must always be available to manage the Horses.
All journeys must be planned carefully, and Horses allowed regular rest periods with access to food and water in line with current FEI guidelines.
2. Fitness to compete:
a) Fitness and competence
Participation in Competition must be restricted to fit Horses and Athletes of proven competence. Horses must be allowed suitable rest period between training and competitions; additional rest periods should be allowed following travelling.
b) Health status
No Horse deemed unfit to compete may compete or continue to compete, veterinary advice must be sought whenever there is any doubt.
c) Doping and Medication
Any action or intent of doping and illicit use of medication constitute a serious welfare issue and will not be tolerated. After any veterinary treatment, sufficient time must be allowed for full recovery before Competition.
d) Surgical procedures
Any surgical procedures that threaten a competing Horse’s welfare or the safety of other Horses and/or Athletes must not be allowed.
e) Pregnant/recently foaled mares
Mares must not compete after their fourth month of pregnancy or with foal at foot.
f) Misuse of aids
Abuse of a Horse using natural riding aids or artificial aids (e.g. whips, spurs, etc.) will not be tolerated.
3. Events must not prejudice Horse welfare:
a) Competition areas
Horses must be trained and compete on suitable and safe surfaces. All obstacles and competition conditions must be designed with the safety of the Horse in mind.
b) Ground surfaces
All ground surfaces on which Horses walk, train or compete must be designed and maintained to reduce factors that could lead to injury.
c) Extreme weather
Competitions must not take place in extreme weather conditions that may compromise welfare or safety of the Horse. Provision must be made for cooling conditions and equipment for Horses after competing.
d) Stabling at Events
Stables must be safe, hygienic, comfortable, well ventilated and of sufficient size for the type and disposition of the Horse. Washing-down areas and water must always be available.
4. Humane treatment of horses:
a) Veterinary treatment
Veterinary expertise must always be available at an Event. If a Horse is injured or exhausted during a Competition, the Athlete must stop competing and a veterinary evaluation must be performed”ааца
b) Referral centres
Wherever necessary, Horses should be collected by ambulance and transported to the nearest relevant treatment centre for further assessment and therapy. Injured Horses must be given full supportive treatment before being transported.
c) Competition injuries
The incidence of injuries sustained in Competition should be monitored. Ground surface conditions, frequency of Competitions and any other risk factors should be examined carefully to indicate ways to minimise injuries.
If injuries are sufficiently severe a Horse may need to be euthanized on humane grounds by a veterinarian as soon as possible, with the sole aim of minimising suffering.
Horses must be treated sympathetically and humanely when they retire from Competition.
The FEI urges all those involved in equestrian sport to attain the highest possible levels of education in areas of expertise relevant to the care and management of the Competition Horse.
This Code of Conduct for the Welfare of the Horse may be modified from time to time and the views of all are welcomed. Particular attention will be paid to new research findings and the FEI encourages further funding and support for welfare studies.
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
ARTICLE 200 GENERAL
1. A Jumping Competition is one in which the combination of Horse and Athlete is tested under various conditions over a course of obstacles. It is a test intended to demonstrate the Horse's freedom, its energy, its skill, its speed and its obedience in Jumping and the Athlete's horsemanship. It is essential that strict and detailed JRs are established to regulate Competitions.
2. If an Athlete makes certain Faults such as knocking down an obstacle, refusing, exceeding the time allowed, etc. he incurs Penalties. The winner of the Competition is the Athlete who incurs the least number of Penalties, completes the course in the fastest time or gains the highest number of points, depending on the type of Competition.
3. Variety in Jumping Competitions is encouraged. Therefore, while the JRs are intended to standardise the rules and regulations which apply to Jumping Competitions, they are not intended to standardise the nature of the Competitions since variety provides a precious element of interest for Athletes and spectators alike..
4. Other Competitions may be authorised by the Jumping Director in consultation with the Chair of the Jumping Committee, provided their conditions comply with the requirements set forth in the GRs and in the JRs. Detailed conditions of each Competition must be set out clearly in the Schedule and in the programme of the Event. OCs are not permitted to organise Competitions unless the FEI has approved the conditions according to which these Competitions may be run. OCs wishing to organise international Competitions for five year old Horses must apply for permission to the FEI through their National Federation (hereinafter “NF”). The conditions according to which these Competitions may be run must be approved by the FEI in writing.
5. Competitions must be fair for all Athletes. To achieve this objective, the use of all technical assistance available including but not limited to official video recordings is permitted to assist FEI Officials in carrying out their responsibilities under FEI Rules & Regulations. For official video recordings to be accepted under the FEI Rules & Regulations, they must be presented to the President of the Ground Jury within 30 minutes after the official results are announced. (An official video recording is considered to be a recording made by the designated host broadcaster and/or any other accredited broadcaster and/or a designated official video recording company as named by the OC and/or the FEI prior to the Event in question). Videos recorded by any other entity are not acceptable under any circumstances. A review of the video recording is solely at the discretion of the President of the Ground Jury. If the Ground Jury relies on video evidence to alter the outcome of any Competition after the results have been communicated, such a video recording must contain irrefutable evidence that the original ruling or decision was incorrect. A video recording may never be used to establish the time of an Athlete’s round (see JRs Art. 229.5). The use of a video shall always be within the confines of the applicable rules and must never by its usage alter the rules currently in effect. With reference to the water jump the decision of the water jump judge is final. (see JRs Art. 211.8)
6.1. Chefs d’Equipe, Team Veterinarians, Athletes, Grooms and Horses
6.1.1. OCs of World and Continental Championships for Seniors are responsible for meeting the costs for accommodation and meals from one day before the Horse inspection until one day after the Event and for travelling Expenses of Chefs d'Equipe, team Veterinarians, Athletes and Horses belonging to the official Teams and of their grooms, from the frontier of the host NF’s country, or the point of arrival in the host NF’s country, to the place of the Event, including the cost of loading on and unloading from a ship or aircraft, of quarantine as well as customs duties in the host NF’s country. The same applies for the return journey.
6.1.2. OCs of CSIOs are responsible for meeting the costs for accommodation and meals from one day before the first official Competition until one day after the Event for Chefs d’Equipe, Athletes and Horses belonging to the official teams and of their grooms. Reimbursement of travelling expenses is not obligatory for CSIOs. At the discretion of the OC, the same conditions as above may be offered, in whole or in part, to any individual Athletes entered in addition to the official teams at CSIOs.
6.1.4. OCs are under no obligation to meet any of these expenses beyond the time limits published in the Schedule, or to meet any travelling or accommodation expenses of any other persons who may be associated with the official Teams.
6.1.5. If not otherwise specified in the FEI Rules and Regulations, the scale of expenses for the travel and accommodation of Athletes and grooms and the stabling and fodder for the Horses must be published in the Schedule and must cover the reasonable cost of accommodation and meals.
6.2. Expenses for Officials
6.2.1.OCs shall meet the travelling, accommodation and meals Expenses of all Officials
6.2.2. FEI appointed Officials whose Expenses are to be paid by the OC shall be appointed with the agreement of the OC.
6.2.3 A per diem allowance of minimum one hundred Euros per day per Official must be offered to all FEI Officials at Events.
6.3 For expenses at other FEI Championships, FEI World Cup™ Finals, FEI Nations Cup™ Finals and Olympic Games see the specific rules for these Events. Expenses at Regional Championships and Regional Games are left to the discretion of the OC.
7. If the FEI has reason to suspect that an OC will not be able to meet its financial obligations, the NF concerned will be authorised to require that Event to be secured by financial guarantees such as a bank guarantee or through an escrow account. Information will be included in the Event Schedule to indicate whether the Event has such financial guarantees or not. If the FEI is aware of an Event that is likely to default on payment of prize money, the Athletes will be informed through their NF. If in spite of all precautions taken an OC fails to meet its financial obligations to the FEI and Athletes, it will not be permitted to organise another Event until all outstanding debts have been settled; furthermore the total prize money foreseen for the next event that OC wishes to organise must be secured ahead of time in an account jointly held by the OC and the NF.
The dates of all CSI5*, CSI5*-W and CSIO5* Events shall be approved by the FEI Secretary General two years prior to the year in which the Event is to take place.
The dates of all FEI World Cup™ Western European League Events must be entered in the FEI calendar by 1 October three years prior to the year in which the event is to take place and shall be approved by the FEI Secretary General two years prior to the year in which the Event is to take place. Consequently, applications for the dates of CSI5*, CSI5*-W outside of Western Europe and CSIO5* Events to be inserted in the FEI Calendar must be received by the FEI Secretary General by 1 October two years prior to the year in which the Event takes place and the dates of FEI World Cup™ Western European League Events must be received by the FEI Secretary General by 1 October three years prior to the year in which the Event takes place.
For late date applications and/or modifications of CSI5*, CSI5*-W and CSIO5* Events received between 2 October two years prior to the year in which the Event is to take place and 1 October one year prior to the year in which the Event is to take place, any NF and/or OC of a 5* Event already entered in the calendar that may be deemed to be affected by the acceptance of such late date application and/or modification shall be given the opportunity to provide its opinion and if objecting to the late addition or modification of dates must explain the reasons for the objection. After an evaluation of the reasons for an objection, the Secretary General may accept the late addition or modification. For late date application and/or modification of CSI5*, CSI5*-W and CSIO5* Events received after 1 October one year prior to the year in which the Event is to take place, the procedure established in GRs Art. 112.7 will apply.
CSI5* Events are not permitted to clash with FEI World Cup™ Western European League Events unless the OCs involved are in agreement; CSI5* Events are not permitted to clash with the FEI World Cup™ Jumping Final. CSI5*, CSI5*-W and CSIO5* Events are not permitted to clash with the FEI Nations Cup™ Jumping Final.
All Horses must be stabled in the official stables provided by the OC for the duration of the Event. In case the Horse(s) are moved to a different stable other than the official stables provided by the OC without the authorisation of the Ground Jury the Horse(s) will be disqualified from the Event.
CHAPTER II ARENAS AND SCHOOLING AREAS
ARTICLE 201 ARENA, SCHOOLING AREAS AND PRACTICE OBSTACLES
1. The arena must be enclosed. While a Horse is in the arena during a Competition, all entrances and exits must be physically closed.
2. An indoor Competition arena must have minimum size of 1’200 m² with a minimum width on the short side of 20 metres. An outdoor Competition arena must have a minimum size of 4’000 m² with a minimum width on the short side of 50 metres. An exception to this rule may be granted, where circumstances warrant, by the FEI Jumping Director in consultation with the Chair of the Jumping Committee.
3. The Schooling Areas
The OC must provide at least one schooling area sufficiently large for optimal training conditions. There must be a minimum of one vertical and one spread obstacle. The ground has to be in proper condition for the training of Horses. When there are many Athletes and sufficient space, additional obstacles should be provided. All obstacles must be constructed in the usual manner and provided with red and white flags. However, the flags may be replaced by tape or paint in order to provide a white and a red top to the wings or uprights.
Where space permits and the number of Athletes is large, a separate schooling area may be designated.
4. Practice Obstacles
The use of obstacle material not provided by the OC is forbidden under Penalty of Disqualification and/or Fine (see JRs Art. 242.2.6 and 240.2.5). Practice obstacles may only be jumped in the direction for which they are flagged. No part of the practice obstacles may be physically held by any person.
4.1. Ground lines may be placed directly underneath the first part of an obstacle or up to one metre away on the take-off side. If there is a ground-line in front of the obstacle, a ground-line may be used behind the obstacle at an equal distance up to a maximum of one metre.
4.2. Any obstacles 1.30 m or higher must have a minimum of two poles, in cups, on the take-off side of the obstacle, regardless of whether or not a ground line is used. The lower pole must always be below 1.30 m.
4.3. If crossed poles are used as the top part of an obstacle, they must be able to fall individually. The top end of the poles must be in a cup. However, there can be a horizontal top pole behind the crossed poles, which must be at least 20 centimetres higher than the centre of the crossed poles.
4.4. The top poles of an obstacle must always be in cups at both ends. If the pole is resting on the edge of a cup it must be on the far edge and never on the near edge.
4.5. For Competitions where the maximum obstacle height is 1.40m or less, the obstacles in the practice arena may not exceed in height and width ten centimetres more than the actual maximum height and width of the obstacles of the Competition in progress.. If the obstacle height of the Competition in progress is greater than 1.40 m, the obstacles in the practice arena may not exceed 1.60 m in height and 1.80 m in width.
4.6. It is not permitted to walk Horses over poles when these are elevated or placed in cups at one or both ends.
4.7 The OC may provide material to simulate a water ditch.
5. Gymnastic Training
5.1. Athletes may train their Horses in gymnastic exercises using placing poles on the ground, but obstacles used for this purpose may not exceed 1.30 m in height. Athletes using such obstacles must not violate the rules against rapping (see JRs Art. 243.2.1).
5.2. Placing Poles: if there is enough space placing poles may be used and placed on the ground not closer than 2.50 m on the take-off side of a vertical obstacle not exceeding 1.30 m in height. A placing pole may be used on the landing side not closer than 2.50 m when the obstacle is jumped at the trot or three metres if at the canter .
5.3. Exercising and Training: whenever possible provision should be made for Athletes to exercise and train in the presence of a steward for several hours in the morning. Athletes may change obstacles providing JRs Art. 201.4, 201.5 and 201.6 are not contravened.
6. Combinations are permitted as long as there is enough space and if they are built with correct distances. The OC must provide the material.
When training areas are crowded Athletes may only use single obstacles.
7. The schooling area(s) must always be supervised by a steward when in use.
ARTICLE 202 ACCESS TO THE ARENA AND PRACTICE OBSTACLE
1. Athletes on foot may only be admitted once to the arena before each Competition and this includes Competitions with jump-off(s). Entry into the arena will be prohibited by means of a notice "Arena Closed" placed at the entrance or conspicuously in the middle of the arena. Permission to enter the arena will be given by the Ground Jury ringing the bell and by displaying a notice "Arena Open". An announcement must also be made over the public address system. However, in Competitions over two rounds with different courses, Athletes may inspect the course before the second round.
2. The OC of an indoor Event where facilities for exercising are severely limited, may, with the agreement of the Ground Jury, give special permission for the arena to be used for exercising at specified times.
3. If the schooling areas are inadequate or cannot be used, a practice obstacle which is not part of the course must be placed in the arena. In all other circumstances, facultative or practice obstacles are not allowed in any Competition. In certain special competitions (including but not limited to the Six Bar or Puissance Competition) the Ground Jury may decide that the Athletes remaining in the Competition must stay in the arena after the first or second jump-off. In this case, the Ground Jury must allow a practice obstacle in the arena.
4. The practice obstacle must be a spread obstacle not exceeding 1.40 m in height and 1.60 m in spread or a vertical obstacle not exceeding 1.40 m in height, provided with red and white flags and should not be numbered. These dimensions may not be altered during the course of the Competition. Only two attempts at this obstacle are allowed. Jumping or attempting to jump this practice obstacle more than twice entails a fine in addition to the possible Disqualification (see JRs Art. 242.2.3 and 240.2.6).
Jumping the practice obstacle in the wrong direction may incur disqualification (see JRs Art. 242.2.7).
The Athlete is allowed 90 seconds maximum to make these attempts, counted from the time the Ground Jury rings the bell.
A knock down, Refusal or run out count as an attempt. If there is a Refusal at the first attempt with a knock down or displacing of the obstacle, this obstacle is to be reset and the Athlete is allowed to make a second and final attempt. The time taken to reset the obstacle is neutralised.
The Ground Jury must give the signal to start the round after the Athlete has made his attempt(s) or after 90 seconds. After the sound of the bell, the Athlete who has attempted only once, is allowed the second attempt but he must cross the starting line in the correct direction within 45 seconds; failure to do so will start the time of the round (see JRs Art. 203.1.2).
5. Athletes may not jump or attempt to jump any obstacle in the arena during a parade before the Competition. Failure to comply with this paragraph may incur Disqualification (see JRs Art. 242.2.4).
6. A prize winner may only jump an obstacle for the benefit of the press with the permission of the Ground Jury, provided it does not form part of a subsequent round. This practice should not be encouraged.
ARTICLE 203 BELL
1. The bell is used to communicate with the Athletes. One of the members of the Ground Jury is in charge of the bell and responsible for its use. The bell is used:
1.1. to give permission to the Athletes to enter the arena when the course is ready for their inspection (see JRs Art. 202.1) and to signal that the inspection time is over;
1.2. to give the signal to start and to activate a 45-seconds countdown shown in the timing equipment in the scoreboard or in another display beside the arena.
The 45-seconds countdown sets the time that the Athlete can spare before commencing his round. The Ground Jury has the right to interrupt the 45-seconds countdown if unforeseen circumstances occur. Incidents such as, but not limited to, disobediences and falls, occurring between the signal to start and up to the moment the Athlete crosses the starting line in the correct direction, are not penalised (see JRs Art. 235.3).
After the bell has rung, crossing the starting line in the correct direction for a second time before jumping the first obstacle is counted as a Disobedience.
However, the Ground Jury, in its discretion if the situation so warrants, has the right not to activate the start or to cancel the starting procedure, give a new signal to start and restart the countdown.
1.3. to stop an Athlete for any reason or following an unforeseen incident and to signal to him to continue his round after an interruption (see JRs Art. 217.4 and 233);
1.4. to indicate the Athlete that an obstacle knocked down following a Disobedience has been replaced (see JRs Art. 233);
1.5. to indicate by prolonged and repeated ringing that the Athlete has been eliminated.
2. If the Athlete does not obey the signal to stop, he may be eliminated at the discretion of the Ground Jury (see JRs Art. 241.4.5) except where specifically provided for under JRs Art. 233.2.
3. If, after an interruption, the Athlete restarts and jumps or attempts to jump without waiting for the bell to ring, he will be eliminated (see JRs Art. 241.3.14).
ARTICLE 204 COURSE AND MEASURING
1. The Ground Jury must walk the course to inspect it before the start of the Competition. The course is the track, which the mounted Athlete must follow when competing from passing the start in the correct direction up to the finish. The length must be measured accurately to the nearest metre taking account, particularly on the turns, the normal line to be followed by the Horse. This normal line must pass through the middle of the obstacle.
2. In Championship Competitions, Olympic Games, Nations Cup and Grand Prix Competitions, the President of the Ground Jury or his designee must ensure that the Course Designer has properly measured the course. At Championships, Finals, Games and all 5* Events, the President of the Ground Jury or his designee must walk the course with the Course Designer to ensure that the course is properly measured with a wheel. In exceptional cases, the Ground Jury may alter the time, if the conditions as mentioned in JRs Art. 204.3 apply.
3. Once the Competition has started only the Ground Jury in consultation with the Course Designer, and the Technical Delegate if present, may decide that a significant error has been committed in the measurement of the course. This may be done at the latest after the third Athlete, who has completed the course without a Disobedience or any other interruption, assuming that the three Athletes in question have started their course prior to the 45-second countdown elapsing, and before the next Athlete has started. In this case, the Ground Jury has the option to alter the time allowed. If the time allowed is increased, the Score of the Athletes who have jumped the course before the time was altered will then be adjusted accordingly, if applicable. If the time allowed is decreased, this may only be done to the extent that no Athlete having previously completed his round receives time penalties due to the alteration of the time allowed.
4. If the condition of the footing becomes bad, the Ground Jury may alter the speed provided for in the Schedule, before the start of the first Athlete of the Competition.
5. The total length of the course in metres may never exceed the number of obstacles in the Competition multiplied by 60.
6. The starting and finishing lines may not be more than 15 m or less than six metres from the first and last obstacle. These two lines must each be marked with an entirely red flag on the right and an entirely white flag on the left. The start line and finish line must also be marked with markers with the letters S (= Start) and F (= Finish).
ARTICLE 205 COURSE PLAN
1. The Course Designer must give the Ground Jury a copy of the course plan showing accurately all the details of the course. An exact copy of the course plan given to the Ground Jury must be posted as close as possible to the entrance of the arena, at least 30 minutes before the beginning of each Competition. For all Competitions the track as measured by the Course Designer must be indicated on the course plan that is posted prior to the Competition.
2. The obstacles are numbered consecutively in the order in which they must be jumped, except in certain Competitions, as specified in the JRs.
3. Combination obstacles carry only a single number. This number may be repeated at each element for the benefit of the Ground Jury and Athletes. In this case, distinguishing letters will be added (for example: 8A, 8B, 8C, etc.).
4. The plan must indicate the following:
4.1. the position of the starting and finishing lines. During a round, unless otherwise indicated, these may be re-crossed without Penalty;
4.2. the relative position, type (spread or vertical obstacle, triple bar), numbering and lettering of obstacles;
4.3. any compulsory turning points marked by a white flag on the left side and a red flag on the right;
4.4. the track to be followed by Athletes marked either by a continuous line (in which case it must be followed precisely) or by a series of arrows showing the direction in which each obstacle must be jumped (in which case the Athlete is free to choose his own track). Should there be a compulsory section in an otherwise unrestricted course, both methods must be used on the same plan;
4.5. the table of Penalties to be used;
4.6. the speed for the Competition if applicable;
4.7. the length of the course;
4.8. the time allowed and the time limit, if any; or the fixed time in certain Competitions, as specified in the JRs;
4.9. the obstacles, the length, the time allowed and the time limit for the jump-offs;
4.10. the combinations considered as completely closed or as partially closed (see JRs Art. 214);
4.11. all decisions and/or modifications made by the Ground Jury in regard to the course.
ARTICLE 206 ALTERATIONS TO THE COURSE
1. Should force of circumstances make it necessary to alter the plan of the course after it has been posted, the change may only be made after agreement of the Ground Jury. In this case the Chefs d'Equipe and all individual Athletes must be advised of the alterations.
2. Once the Competition has begun, the conditions under which it is run may not be altered and the course or its obstacles may not be changed unless otherwise stipulated in the JRs (see Art. 204.3). If it becomes necessary to interrupt the Competition (because of a storm or bad light, etc.) it must subsequently be continued using the same obstacles and course and as far as possible under the same conditions and at the exact point where it was interrupted. However, for the Nations Cup, JRs Art. 264.3.6 applies.
3. Notwithstanding paragraph 2 above, an obstacle may be re-sited during a round, or between rounds of a Competition, if in the opinion of the Ground Jury a deterioration in the state of the going or other special circumstances necessitates such action. Obstacles, which cannot be re-sited, such as water jumps, ditches or permanent obstacles, must be taken out of the course. If an obstacle has been taken out of the course during a round, the Scores of all previous Athletes penalised during this round at that obstacle must be adjusted by cancelling jumping Penalties and time corrections incurred thereat. All Eliminations and time Penalties already incurred will stand.
4. If necessary, a new time allowed and time limit shall be fixed for the course as altered under paragraph 3 above.
ARTICLE 207 FLAGS
1. Completely red flags and completely white flags must be used to mark the following details of the course:
1.1. the starting line; it is obligatory to place also a marker S (see JRs Art. 204.6);
1.2. the limits of the obstacles; the flags may be attached to any part of the wings of the obstacles. They may also stand independently. One red flag and one white flag must be placed at vertical obstacles and at least two red and two white flags to define the limits of spread obstacles. They must also be used to mark the limits of the obstacles provided in the schooling areas (JRs Art. 201.3) or the practice obstacle in the arena (JRs Art. 202.3); in the schooling area it is also allowed to use wings/uprights with a red or white top, instead of flags;
1.3. compulsory turning points;
1.4. the finishing line; it is obligatory to place also a marker F (JRs Art. 204.6);
2. At the obstacles, the starting and finishing lines and at the compulsory turning points, the Athlete must pass between the flags (red on his right and white on his left). Flag poles defining the limits of the landing side of the water jump must be made of material that cannot shatter or splinter and must bend when hit; flags must have no sharp points or corners.
3. If an Athlete passes the flags on the wrong side, he must retrace his steps and pass them on the correct side before continuing his round. If he does not correct this mistake, he will be eliminated (see JRs Art. 220.1.2).
4. Knocking down a flag anywhere in the arena does not incur a Penalty. If a flag marking the limits of an obstacle or compulsory turning point or the finishing line has been knocked down following a Disobedience / Resistance, (without passing these lines) or as a result of unforeseen circumstances, the flag will not be replaced immediately; the Athlete must continue his round and the obstacle /compulsory turning point will be judged as if the flag was in its original place. The flag must be replaced before the next Athlete will be given the signal to start.
5. However, if a flag defining the limits of the water jump or of a natural obstacle has been knocked down following a Disobedience or as a result of unforeseen circumstances and in all cases where the nature of the obstacle is changed by knocking down the flag, the Ground Jury will interrupt the round of the Athlete. The clock must be stopped while the flag is replaced and a time correction of six seconds will be applied in accordance with the procedure provided for in JRs Art. 232.
6. In certain Competitions, the starting and finishing lines may be crossed in both directions. In this case the lines must be provided with four flags; a red and a white flag at each end of these lines.
CHAPTER III OBSTACLES
ARTICLE 208 OBSTACLES - GENERAL
1. The obstacles must be inviting in their overall shape and appearance, varied and match their surroundings. Both the obstacles themselves and their constituent parts must be such that they can be knocked down, while not being so light that they fall at the slightest touch or so heavy that they may cause Horses to fall or be injured.
2. The obstacles must be designed with horsemanship and fairness in mind.
3. A sponsored obstacle is any obstacle inside the flags of which there is advertising material or a sponsors product or representation of a product. If advertising material or representation of a product on the wing of an obstacle is more than 0.50 m², the obstacle is also considered to be a sponsored obstacle. If the wings of an obstacle have advertising of 0.50 m2 or less, the obstacle is not considered a sponsored obstacle. No more than 30%, rounded up to the next whole number of the efforts, may be sponsored obstacles.
This paragraph applies to World and Continental Championships and FEI World Cup™ Final and other Events or Competitions as designated by the FEI. The Technical Delegate must approve the design and construction of all obstacles with regard to safety and technical suitability.
In agreement with the Chair of the Jumping Committee, FEI Commercial Director and FEI Director Jumping, the number of sponsored efforts may be increased up to 50%.
4. The maximum height of obstacles in the first round of any Competition which takes place within the frame of an Event classified according to GRs Art. 102.6 is:
(i) 1.40 m for CSI1* Events;
(ii) cannot exceed 1.45 m for CSI2* Events.
The above does not apply for Six Bar and Puissance Competitions.
5. Under no circumstances, except in Six-Bar, Puissance and Power and Skill Competitions may any obstacle exceed 1.70 m in height. Spread obstacles must not exceed two metres in spread with the exception of triple bars which may have a maximum spread of 2.20 m. This applies also in the case of one or of several jump-offs. The water jump may not exceed 4.50 m in spread including the take off element.
6. Poles and other parts of the obstacles are held up by supports (cups). The pole must be able to roll on its support; in this case the support must have a depth of 18 mm minimum and a depth of 30 mm maximum. For planks, balustrades, barriers, gates, etc. the diameter of the supports must be more open or even flat.
7. The limits on the height and spread of obstacles set forth by these JRs and in the definite Schedules must be observed with the greatest care. However, if it should happen that a maximum dimension has been marginally exceeded as a result of the material used for construction and/or by the position of the obstacle on the ground, the maximum dimensions set forth will not be considered as having been exceeded, providing every effort has been made to not exceed the maximum dimensions specified in the Schedule with the material available.
8. The approximate dimensions of obstacles in Competitions other than those, which are specially set forth in the JRs, must be stipulated in the Schedule.
ARTICLE 209 VERTICAL OBSTACLE
1. An obstacle whatever its construction may only be called a vertical when faults are judged on the same vertical plane.
ARTICLE 210 SPREAD OBSTACLE
1. A spread obstacle is an obstacle which is built in such a manner that it requires an effort both in spread and in height. FEI-approved safety cups must be used as support for the back pole of spread obstacles and in case of a triple-bar to support the centre and back poles of the obstacle. Approved safety cups must be used in the Competition arena and schooling areas.
2. The President of the Ground Jury is responsible for the rules relating to safety cups to be followed. The Foreign Judge will report any non-compliance of the rules to the FEI. The name of the company which supplies the FEI approved safety cups, to be used at the Event, will be mentioned in the Schedule.
ARTICLE 211 WATER JUMP, WATER JUMP WITH VERTICAL AND LIVERPOOL
1. For an obstacle to be called a water jump, there must be no obstacle in front, in the middle or behind the water. The water must have a minimum spread in excess of two metres and must be dug into the ground. For details of how the water jump should be constructed refer to Annex VII.
If the water jump does not meet the specifications as described in Annex VII, a vertical obstacle must be placed over the water as described in JRs Art. 211.10c
2. A take-off element (brush, small wall), with a minimum height of 40 cm and a maximum height of 50 cm, must be erected on the take-off side. The width of the front of the water jump must be at least 30% greater than the length.
3. At Olympic and Regional Games, FEI Championships, CSIOs and CSIs the landing side of the water jump must be defined by a lath, at least six centimetres in width and not exceeding eight centimetres, covered with a bed of contrasting coloured plasticine (i.e. white plasiticine if grass footing, coloured plasticine if sand), about one centimetre thick. This plasticine must be replaced each time a Horse touches it. Several spare laths must be provided together with extra plasticine so that a lath, which has been marked by a Horse, may be replaced at any time. The lath must be placed at the edge of the water, properly fixed to the ground (i.e. directly on the sand or grass footing).
4. If the bottom of the water jump is made of concrete or hard material, it must be covered with a softer material such as a coconut or rubber mat.
5. It is a Fault at the water jump:
5.1. when a Horse puts one or several feet on the lath defining the limit of the water jump. It is a Fault when the foot or the shoe touches the lath and leaves an impression; impression of the fetlock joint or boot does not constitute a fault.
5.2. when a Horse touches the water with one or several feet.
6. Striking, knocking down, or displacing the brush or take-off element is not a Fault.
7. If one of the four flags is knocked down or displaced it is for the water jump Judge to decide whether or not there has been a Run-out depending on which side of the flag the Horse has passed. If the decision is a Run-out the bell will be rung and the clock stopped while the flag, which has been knocked down or displaced is put back and six seconds will be added in accordance with JRs Art. 232.
8. The decision of the water jump Judge is final. For this reason he must be a member of the Ground Jury.
9. The water jump Judge must register the identification number of Horses penalised at the water jump and the reason for the Penalties.
10. Only a vertical obstacle of not more than 1.50 m in height having any number of poles but with the use of FEI-approved safety cups may be placed over open water. The vertical obstacle must not be placed further than two metres from the front of this obstacle. This obstacle is judged as a vertical obstacle and not as a water jump. For this reason it is not necessary to use a lath or other arrangement to define its limits. If a lath is used it is to be considered a visual aid only; Penalties will not be incurred for any imprints on the lath. The same applies if the take-off element is displaced. Only poles with a minimum length of 3.50 m may be used for a vertical placed over a water jump.
11. With the exception of the case set forth in Art. 211.10, if water is used under, in front of or behind an obstacle (a so-called “Liverpool”) the total spread of the obstacle (including the water) may not exceed two metres. Open water with a spread of more than two metres may not be used as a Liverpool.
12. The Technical Delegate or the Foreign Judge if there is no Technical Delegate may, at his discretion, decide whether the water jump may be used in Competitions held under floodlight.
ARTICLE 212 COMBINATION OBSTACLES
1. Double, treble or higher combinations mean a group of two or more obstacles, with distances between the elements of seven metres minimum and 12 metres maximum (except for Hunting or Speed and Handiness Competitions judged under Table C and for permanent fixed obstacles where the distance may be less than 7 metres which require two or more successive efforts. The distance is measured from the base of the obstacle on the landing side to the base of the next obstacle on the take-off side.
2. In combinations, each element of the group must be jumped separately and consecutively, without circling around any element. Faults committed at any element of a combination are penalised separately.
3. When there is a Refusal, Run-out, the Athlete must retake all the elements unless it is a closed combination or partially closed combination (see JRs Art. 214) or a Six Bar or obstacles-in-line Competition.
4. Penalties for Faults made at each element and during different attempts, are counted separately and added together.
5. In a combination obstacle a triple bar may only be used as the first element.
ARTICLE 213 BANKS, MOUNDS, AND RAMPS
1. With exception of JRs Art. 213.2, banks, mounds, ramps and sunken roads irrespective of whether they include any sort of obstacle and in whatever direction they should be taken, are to be regarded as combination obstacles (see JRs Art. 212).
2. A bank or mound without an obstacle or with only one or several poles over it may be jumped in one effort. This method of jumping the obstacle incurs no Penalty.
3. No banks, mounds, sunken roads, talus, slopes or ramps, except table banks not exceeding one metre in height, may be used at indoor Events.
ARTICLE 214 CLOSED COMBINATIONS, PARTIALLY CLOSED & PARTIALLY OPEN COMBINATIONS
1. A combination is considered to be completely closed, if the sides, which surround it, can only be surmounted by jumping.
2. A closed combination may be in the form of an in-and-out, sheep pen, (square or hexagonal) or any similar obstacle considered as a closed combination by decision of the Ground Jury. A combination is considered as partially open and partially closed if one part of this combination is open and the other closed. In the event of a Refusal, Run-out, the following procedure applies (see JRs Art. 219):
2.1. if the Disobedience occurred in the closed part, the Athlete must jump out in the direction of the course;
2.2. if the Disobedience occurred in the open part, the Athlete must take the whole obstacle again. Failure to do so incurs Elimination (see JRs Art. 241.3.15).
In the event of a Disobedience with a knock down and/or displacing of the obstacle at any part, a time correction of six seconds must apply. If, once inside the enclosure, the Horse refuses the Athlete must jump out in the direction of the course. The six seconds Penalty is added to the time when the clock is restarted and the Athlete resumes his round.
3. The Ground Jury must decide before the Competition whether the combination is to be considered as closed or partially closed. This decision must be shown on the plan of the course.
4. If a combination is not mentioned on the plan of the course as closed or partially closed, it must be considered as an open combination and judged as such.
ARTICLE 215 ALTERNATIVE OBSTACLES AND JOKER
1. When in a Competition two obstacles of the course carry the same number, the Athlete has the choice of jumping either one of the obstacles:
1.1. if there is a Refusal or Run-out without a knock-down or displacing of the obstacle, at his next attempt the Athlete is not obliged to jump the obstacle at which the Refusal or Run-out occurred. He may jump the obstacle of his choice;
1.2. if there is a Refusal or Run-out with a knock-down or displacing of the obstacle, he may only restart his round when the obstacle knocked down or displaced has been replaced and when the Ground Jury gives him the signal to start. He may then jump the obstacle of his choice.
2. Red and white flags must be placed at each of the elements of this alternative obstacle.
3. The Joker is a difficult obstacle and must be designed with horsemanship and fairness in mind. It may only be used in an Accumulator Competition or in a Top Score Competition.
CHAPTER IV PENALTIES DURING A ROUND
ARTICLE 216 PENALTIES - GENERAL
During a round, Penalties are incurred for:
1. Knocking down an obstacle (see JRs Art. 217) and a foot in the water or an imprint of the foot or the shoe on the lath defining the limits of the water jump on the landing side;
2. A Disobedience, (i.e. Refusal, Run-out or Resistance) (see JRs Art. 219);
3. A deviation from the course (see JRs Art. 220);
4. A fall of a Horse and/or Athlete (see JRs Art. 224);
5. Unauthorised assistance (see JRs Art. 225);
6. Exceeding the time allowed or the time limit (see JRs Art. 227 and 228).
ARTICLE 217 KNOCK DOWN
1. An obstacle is considered to have been knocked down when, through a mistake of the Horse or Athlete:
1.1. the whole or any upper part of the same vertical plane of it falls, even if the part which falls is arrested in its fall by any other part of the obstacle (see JRs Art. 218.1);
1.2. at least one of its ends no longer rests on any part of its support.
2. Touches and displacements of any part of an obstacle or its flags, in whatever direction, while in the act of jumping, do not count as a knock down. If in doubt the Ground Jury should decide in favour of the Athlete. The knock down or displacement of an obstacle and/or a flag as a result of a Disobedience is penalised as a Refusal only.
In the event of the displacement of any part of an obstacle (except the flags) as a result of a Disobedience, the bell will be rung and the clock stopped while the displacement is re-adjusted. This does not count as a knock down and is only penalised as a Disobedience and corrected by time in accordance with JRs Art. 232.
3. Penalties for knocking down an obstacle are those provided for under Tables A and C (see JRs Art. 236 and 239).
4. If any part of an obstacle, which has been knocked down is likely to impede an Athlete in jumping another obstacle, the bell must be rung and the clock stopped while this part is picked up and the way is cleared.
5. If an Athlete jumps an obstacle correctly which has been improperly rebuilt, he incurs no Penalty; but if he knocks down this obstacle he will be penalised in accordance with the table in use for the Competition.
ARTICLE 218 VERTICAL AND SPREAD OBSTACLES
1. When a vertical obstacle or part of an obstacle comprises two or several parts placed one above the other and positioned in the same vertical plane, only the fall of the top part is penalised.
2. When a spread obstacle which requires only one effort comprises parts which are not positioned in the same vertical plane, the fall of one or several top parts only counts as one Fault whatever the number and position of the parts which have fallen. Trees, hedges etc. used as filling are not liable for Penalties.
ARTICLE 219 DISOBEDIENCES
1. The following are considered as Disobediences and are penalised as such (see JRs Art. 236 and 239):
1.1. a Refusal;
1.2. a Run-out;
1.3. a Resistance;
1.4. a more or less regular circle or group of circles no matter where they occur on the course or for whatever reason. It is also a Disobedience to circle around the last obstacle jumped unless the track of the course so requires.
2. Notwithstanding the above, the following is not considered to be a Disobedience:
2.1 circling for up to 45 seconds after a Run-out or a Refusal (no matter if the obstacle has to be rebuilt or not) to get into position to jump an obstacle.
ARTICLE 220 DEVIATION FROM THE COURSE
1. It is a deviation from the course when the Athlete:
1.1. does not follow the course as set out on the published plan;
1.2. does not cross the starting line or the finishing line between the flags in the correct direction (see JRs Art. 241.3.6 and 241.3.17);
1.3. omits a compulsory turning point (see JRs Art. 241.3.7);
1.4. does not jump the obstacles in the order or in the direction indicated, except in certain special Competitions (see JRs Art. 241.3.10 and 241.3.11);
1.5. jumps or attempts to jump an obstacle which does not form part of the course or omits an obstacle. Obstacles not included in the course should be crossed but failure to do so by the arena party will not preclude the Elimination of an Athlete for jumping an obstacle not forming part of the course.
2. An uncorrected deviation from the course will result in Elimination of the Horse and Athlete combination (see JRs Art. 241.3.6, 241.3.7 and 241.3.17).
ARTICLE 221 REFUSAL
1. It is a Refusal when a Horse halts in front of an obstacle, which it must jump whether or not the Horse knocks it down or displaces it.
2. Stopping in front of an obstacle without moving backwards and without knocking it down followed immediately by a standing jump is not penalised.
3. If the halt is prolonged, if the Horse steps back, either voluntarily or not, even a single pace, it counts as a Refusal.
4. If a Horse slides through an obstacle, the Judge in charge of the bell must decide immediately if it is to count as a Refusal or as an obstacle knocked down. If he decides that it is a Refusal the bell is rung at once and the Athlete must be ready to attempt the obstacle again as soon as it has been rebuilt (see JRs Art. 232 and 233).
4.1. If the Judge decides that it is not a Refusal, the bell is not rung and the Athlete must continue his round. He is then penalised as for an obstacle knocked down.
4.2. If the bell has been rung and the Athlete jumps other elements of the combination in his stride, , he will not be eliminated or incur further penalties even if he knocks down this element of the combination.
ARTICLE 222 RUN-OUT
1. It is a Run-out when the Horse escapes the control of its Athlete and avoids an obstacle, which it has to jump or a compulsory turning point, which it has to pass.
2. When a Horse jumps an obstacle between two red flags or between two white flags the obstacle has not been jumped correctly, the Athlete is penalised as for a Run-out and he must jump the obstacle again correctly.
3. It is considered to be a run out and is penalised as such for a Horse or any part of a Horse to go past the extended line of an obstacle to be jumped, or of an element of a combination, or of the finishing line or of a compulsory turning point.
ARTICLE 223 RESISTANCE
1. It is a Resistance when the Horse refuses to go forward, makes a halt for any reason, makes one or several more or less regular or complete half turns, rears or steps back for whatever reason.
2. It is equally a Resistance when the Athlete stops his Horse at any moment and for any reason, except in the event of an incorrectly rebuilt obstacle or to indicate unforeseen circumstances to the Ground Jury (see JRs Art. 233.3.2). A Resistance is penalised as for a Refusal except in the circumstances set out in JRs Art. 241.3.4.
ARTICLE 224 FALLS
1. An Athlete is considered to have fallen when, either voluntarily or involuntarily, he is separated from his Horse, which has not fallen, in such a way that he touches the ground or finds it necessary, in order to get back into the saddle, to use some form of support or outside assistance.
If it is not clear that the Athlete has used some form of support or outside assistance to prevent his fall, the benefit of doubt must be given to the Athlete.
2. A Horse is considered to have fallen when the shoulder and quarters have touched the ground or the obstacle and the ground.
ARTICLE 225 UNAUTHORISED ASSISTANCE
1. Any physical intervention by a third party between the crossing of the starting line in the correct direction and the crossing of the finishing line after jumping the last obstacle, whether solicited or not, with the object of helping the Athlete or his Horse is considered to be unauthorised assistance.
2. In certain exceptional cases, the Ground Jury may authorise the Athlete to enter the arena on foot or with the help of another person, without this being considered as unauthorised assistance.
3. Any help given to a mounted Athlete to adjust his saddlery or bridle or to hand him a whip while mounted during the round will incur Elimination. To hand a mounted Athlete his headgear and/or spectacles during his round is not considered to be unauthorised assistance (see JRs Art. 241.3.20.).
CHAPTER V TIME AND SPEED
ARTICLE 226 TIME OF THE ROUND
1. The time of a round, recorded in seconds and in hundredths of a second, is the time taken by an Athlete to complete the round, plus the time correction (see JRs Art. 232) if any. The time awarded to the Athlete starts running either upon crossing the starting line as per Art. 226.2 or upon expiration of the 45-second countdown (see JRs Art. 203.1.2), whichever occurs first. It extends to the moment when the mounted Athlete crosses the finishing line in the correct direction, after having jumped the last obstacle.
2. The round starts when the mounted Athlete passes the starting line in the correct direction for the first time after the bell has been rung. It extends to the moment when the mounted Athlete crosses the finishing line in the correct direction, after having jumped the last obstacle.
3. A display board, clearly visible for the Athlete, must show the 45-seconds countdown.
ARTICLE 227 TIME ALLOWED
1. The time allowed for a round in each Competition is determined in relation to the length of the course and the speeds set forth under JRs Art. 234 and Annex II.
ARTICLE 228 TIME LIMIT
1. The time limit is equal to twice the time allowed for all Competitions in which a time allowed has been set forth.
ARTICLE 229 RECORDING THE TIME
1. Each Competition at an Event must be timed by the same system or by means of the same type of timing equipment. FEI-homologated timing equipment is compulsory for all Olympic and Regional Games, FEI Championships, FEI World Cup™ Finals, CSIOs and CSIs unless circumstances warrant an exception to be authorised by the FEI Jumping Director. In all instances, the timekeeper is required to record the number of the Horse and the time taken to complete the round by the means of an electronic timing system. The time must be recorded to the one-hundredth of a second.
2. Two digital stopwatches are required in case the electronic timing system breaks down and a third watch to measure the time taken to resume the round after the bell has been rung for Disobediences, interruptions, the time taken between two consecutive obstacles and the time limit for a Resistance. The President or a member of the Ground Jury must have a digital stopwatch.
3. In any Competition where the time is taken by stopwatches, the time is to be registered in seconds and in hundredths of a second. If two timekeepers are used, only the time of one will be taken into account for the official timing, the time of the second timekeeper will be used as a back-up.
4. In case of a breakdown of the electronic timing equipment, the time of any Athlete affected by the breakdown shall be determined by a stopwatch in hundredths of a second (for details see Annex IV).
5. A video recording may never be used to establish the time of an Athlete’s round.
6. If the crossing of the starting and/or finishing line by the Athlete cannot be clearly judged from the Ground Jury box, one or two persons, one at the starting line and one at the finishing line, with a flag, must be placed at both of these lines to signal the crossing of the Athlete. The time taken by the Athlete to complete the round is to be registered at the Ground Jury box.
ARTICLE 230 INTERRUPTED TIME
1. While the clock is stopped, the Athlete remains free to move around until the ringing of the bell gives him permission to start again.
The clock is restarted when the Athlete reaches the place where the clock was stopped. Exception, in the case of a Disobedience with a knock-down, in which case JRs Art. 232 applies.
2. The responsibility for starting and stopping the clock rests solely with the Judge in charge of the bell. The timing equipment must be such that this procedure can be followed. The timekeeper may not be made responsible for this function.
3. The electronic timing system must not only register the time of the Athlete’s round, but must also include time corrections, if any.
ARTICLE 231 DISOBEDIENCES DURING INTERRUPTED TIME
1. The time of a round is interru